What Is GAD 65 Autoantibody?


Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) is an enzyme that is produced primarily by pancreatic islet cells.

A number of recent studies indicate that patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) often have antibodies to GAD65 and several other islet cell antigens.

What does positive GAD antibodies mean?

GAD antibodies and diabetes. Your pancreas needs the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) to function normally. Antibodies that target this enzyme are called GAD antibodies. Sometimes, the immune system makes autoantibodies, which are antibodies that mistakenly attack normal cells that aren’t harmful.

What is the normal level of anti GAD antibodies?

Extremely high levels of GAD antibodies (1,000 units/ml) may be due to stiff-person syndrome, an autoimmune condition that causes progressive muscle rigidity and spasms. Type 1 diabetes is less common than type 2 diabetes, and it usually presents in children and young adults.

What is a glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody test?

A GAD test is a blood test which measures whether the body is producing a type of antibody which destroys its own GAD cells. In type 1 diabetes, a number of autoantibodies are thought to circulate including those which target glutamic acid decarboxylase.

What antibodies are present in type 1 diabetes?

4 autoantibodies are markers of beta cell autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes: Islet Cell Antibodies (ICA, against cytoplasmic proteins in the beta cell), antibodies to Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD-65), Insulin Autoantibodies (IAA), and IA-2A, to protein tyrosine phosphatase [2] .

What is a normal gad65?

The detection of GAD65, as well as IA-2 autoantibodies in diagnosed T2D patients by conventional criteria (ADA or WHO) commonly ranges between 5–10% and may be higher if insulin is used as a therapy.

What does a positive antibody screen mean?

A positive test means you already have antibodies in your blood. If they’re Rh antibodies, the shot won’t help. Your doctor will watch you and your baby closely. If there are problems while you’re pregnant, your baby may need to be born early or get a blood transfusion through the umbilical cord.

What triggers Lada?

Like type 1 diabetes, LADA happens because your body makes antibodies that cause the immune system — your body’s defense against germs — to attack the insulin-making cells of your pancreas. As the ability to make insulin is lost, your body can no longer control blood sugar levels.

What does a high C peptide result mean?

A high level of C-peptide could mean a number of conditions. These include a kidney problem or an insulinoma, a tumor of the insulin-making cells in the pancreas. A level of C-peptide that’s lower than normal means that your body isn’t making enough insulin or that your pancreas isn’t working properly.

Can Lada be reversed?

But unlike type 2 diabetes, LADA is an autoimmune disease and isn’t reversible with changes in diet and lifestyle. Your beta cells stop functioning much more quickly if you have type 1.5 diabetes than if you have type 2. It’s estimated that 10 percent of people who have diabetes have LADA.

What does glutamic acid decarboxylase do?

Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to GABA and CO2. GAD uses PLP as a cofactor.

How is Lada diagnosed?

The proposed diagnostic criteria for LADA include: 1) Adult age at diagnosis (usually ≥30). 2) Positivity for at least one antibody usually seen in type 1 diabetes including islet cell autoantigen-2 antibodies, islet cell antibodies, insulin antibodies, and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 antibodies (anti-GAD).

How do you treat Lada?

At first, LADA can be managed by controlling your blood sugar with diet, losing weight if appropriate, exercise and, possibly, oral medications. But as your body gradually loses its ability to produce insulin, you’ll eventually need insulin shots.